General Bibliography

Amirav, I., & Newhouse, M. T. (2020). Transmission of coronavirus by nebulizer: a serious, underappreciated risk. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 192(13), E346–E346.

Australian Government Department of Health. (2019a, June 11). Modified Monash Model. Australian Government Department of Health.

Australian Government Department of Health. (2019b, June 19). Health Workforce Locator. Australian Government Department of Health.

Australian Government Department of Health. (2019c, June 20). District of Workforce Shortage. Australian Government Department of Health.

Australian Government Department of Health. (2019d, June 28). Modified Monash Model – fact sheet. Australian Government Department of Health.

Australian Government Department of Health. (2020a, February 18). Australian Health Sector Emergency Response Plan for Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19).

Australian Government Department of Health. (2020b, March 10). Environmental cleaning and disinfection principles for COVID-19.

Bascetta, C. A. (2010). Emergency Preparedness: State Efforts to Plan for Medical Surge Could Benefit from Shared Guidance for Allocating Scarce Medical Resources: Congressional Testimony. DIANE Publishing.

Bravata, D. M., McDonald, K. M., Owens, D. K., Wilhelm, E. R., Brandeau, M. L., Zaric, G. S., Holty, J. E. C., Liu, H., & Sundaram, V. (2004). Regionalization of Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response: Summary. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Bravata, D. M., McDonald, K., Owens, D. K., Buckeridge, D., Haberland, C., Rydzak, C., Schleinitz, M., Smith, W. M., Szeto, H., Wilkening,D., Musen, M., Duncan, B. W., Nouri, B., Dangiolo, M. B., Liu, H., Shofer, S., Graham, J., & Davies, S. (2002). Bioterrorism preparedness and response: use of information technologies and decision support systems. Evidence Report/technology Assessment , 59, 1–8.

Bravata, D.M., Perkins A.J., Myers, L; Arling, G; Zhang, Y; Zillich, A; Reese, L; Dysangco, A; Agarwal R; Myers, J; Austin, C; Sexson A; Leonard S; Dev, S; Keyhani, S. Association of Intensive Care Unit Patient Load and Demand With Mortality Rates in US Department of Veterans Affairs Hospitals During the COVID-19 Pandemic. JAMA Netw Open. Jan 19, 2021

Carding, N. (2009, August). Responding to pandemic influenza – The ethical framework for policy and planning. Health Service Journal.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, November 9). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – Hierarchy of Controls- NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Checklist for Healthcare Facilities: Strategies for Optimizing the Supply of N95 Respirators during the COVID-19 Response. Updated March, 5.

Ceravolo, M. G., Arienti, C., De Sire, A., Andrenelli, E., Negrini, F., Lazzarini, S., Patrini, M., Negrini, S., & International Multiprofessional Steering Committee of Cochrane Rehabilitation REH-COVER action. (2020). Rehabilitation and Covid-19: the Cochrane Rehabilitation 2020 rapid living systematic review. European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

Cheung, J. C.-H., Ho, L. T., Cheng, J. V., Cham, E. Y. K., & Lam, K. N. (2020). Staff safety during emergency airway management for COVID-19 in Hong Kong. Lancet Respir Med.

Chilcott, R. P. (2014). Managing mass casualties and decontamination. Environment International, 72, 37–45.

Chou, J.-S., Tsai, C.-F., Chen, Z.-Y., & Sun, M.-H. (2014). Biological-based genetic algorithms for optimized disaster response resource allocation. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 74, 52–67.

College of Intensive Care Medicine of Australia and New Zealand. (2016). IC-1 Minimum Standards for Intensive Care Units.

College of Intensive Care Medicine of Australia and New Zealand. (2019). IC-13 Guidelines on Standards for High Dependency Units.

College of Intensive Care Medicine of Australia and New Zealand. (2020). CICM – Professional Documents.

COVID-19-Paediatric-multisystem-%20inflammatory%20syndrome-20200501.pdf. (n.d.).

Critical Care Resources (CCR) Registry – ANZICS. (2020). ANZICS.

Davies, P., Evans, C., Kanthimathinathan, H. K., Lillie, J., Brierley, J., Waters, G., Johnson, M., Griffiths, B., du Pré, P., Mohammad, Z., Deep, A., Playfor, S., Singh, D., Inwald, D., Jardine, M., Ross, O., Shetty, N., Worrall, M., Sinha, R., … Ramnarayan, P. (2020). Intensive care admissions of children with paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMSTS) in the UK: a multicentre observational study. In The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health (Vol. 4, Issue 9, pp. 669–677).

de Souza, T. H., Nadal, J. A., Nogueira, R. J. N., Pereira, R. M., & Brandão, M. B. (2020). Clinical manifestations of children with COVID-19: A systematic review. Pediatric Pulmonology, 55(8), 1892–1899.

Department of Health, Commonwealth of Australia. (2020). Australian Health Sector Emergency Response Plan for Novel Coronavirus COVID-19.

Gomersall, C. D., Tai, D. Y. H., Loo, S., Derrick, J. L., Goh, M. S., Buckley, T. A., Chua, C., Ho, K. M., Raghavan, G. P., Ho, O. M., Lee, L. B., & Joynt, G. M. (2006). Expanding ICU facilities in an epidemic: recommendations based on experience from the SARS epidemic in Hong Kong and Singapore. Intensive Care Medicine, 32(7), 1004–1013.

Grasselli, G., Pesenti, A., & Cecconi, M. (2020). Critical Care Utilization for the COVID-19 Outbreak in Lombardy, Italy: Early Experience and Forecast During an Emergency Response. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association.

Guan, W.-J., Ni, Z.-Y., Hu, Y., Liang, W.-H., Ou, C.-Q., He, J.-X., Liu, L., Shan, H., Lei, C.-L., Hui, D. S. C., Du, B., Li, L.-J., Zeng, G., Yuen, K.-Y., Chen, R.-C., Tang, C.-L., Wang, T., Chen, P.-Y., Xiang, J., … China Medical Treatment Expert Group for Covid-19. (2020). Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. The New England Journal of Medicine.

Guidance – Paediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS). (n.d.-a). Retrieved October 20, 2020, from

Guidance – Paediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS). (n.d.-b). Retrieved October 20, 2020, from

Guidance – Paediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS). (2020).

Hanley, M. E., & Bogdan, G. M. (2008). Mechanical ventilation in mass casualty scenarios. Augmenting staff: project XTREME. Respiratory Care, 53(2), 176–188; discussion 189.

Haverkort, J. J. M., de Jong, M. B., Foco, M., Gui, D., Barhoum, M., Hyams, G., Bahouth, H., Halberthal, M., & Leenen, L. P. H. (2017). Dedicated mass-casualty incident hospitals: An overview. Injury, 48(2), 322–326.

Hermans, G., Van Mechelen, H., Clerckx, B., Vanhullebusch, T., Mesotten, D., Wilmer, A., Casaer, M. P., Meersseman, P., Debaveye, Y., Van Cromphaut, S., Wouters, P. J., Gosselink, R., & Van den Berghe, G. (2014). Acute outcomes and 1-year mortality of intensive care unit-acquired weakness. A cohort study and propensity-matched analysis. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 190(4), 410–420.

Huang, C., Wang, Y., Li, X., Ren, L., Zhao, J., Hu, Y., Zhang, L., Fan, G., Xu, J., Gu, X., Cheng, Z., Yu, T., Xia, J., Wei, Y., Wu, W., Xie, X., Yin, W., Li, H., Liu, M., … Cao, B. (2020). Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet, 395(10223), 497–506.

International Society for Rapid Response Systems. (2020). Recommendations for Rapid Response Teams (RRTs) and Critical Care Outreach (CCO) services in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Klompas, M., Morris, C. A., Sinclair, J., Pearson, M., & Shenoy, E. S. (2020). Universal Masking in Hospitals in the Covid-19 Era. The New England Journal of Medicine.

Kotoda, M., Hishiyama, S., Mitsui, K., Tanikawa, T., Morikawa, S., Takamino, A., & Matsukawa, T. (2019). Assessment of the potential for pathogen dispersal during high-flow nasal therapy. The Journal of Hospital Infection.

Lednicky, J. A., Lauzard, M., Fan, Z. H., Jutla, A., Tilly, T. B., Gangwar, M., Usmani, M., Shankar, S. N., Mohamed, K., Eiguren-Fernandez, A., Stephenson, C. J., Alam, M. M., Elbadry, M. A., Loeb, J. C., Subramaniam, K., Waltzek, T. B., Cherabuddi, K., Morris, J. G., Jr, & Wu, C.-Y. (2020). Viable SARS-CoV-2 in the air of a hospital room with COVID-19 patients. International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID: Official Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, 100, 476–482.

Leung, C. C. H., Joynt, G. M., Gomersall, C. D., Wong, W. T., Lee, A., Ling, L., Chan, P. K. S., Lui, P. C. W., Tsoi, P. C. Y., Ling, C. M., & Hui, M. (2019). Comparison of high-flow nasal cannula versus oxygen face mask for environmental bacterial contamination in critically ill pneumonia patients: a randomized controlled crossover trial. The Journal of Hospital Infection, 101(1), 84–87.

Li, G., & De Clercq, E. (2020). Therapeutic options for the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery, 19(3), 149–150.

Li, Y. G., Chwang, A. T. Y., Seto, W. H., Ho, P. L., & Yuen, P. L. (2008). Understanding droplets produced by nebulisers and respiratory activities. Hong Kong Medical Journal = Xianggang Yi Xue Za Zhi / Hong Kong Academy of Medicine, 14(1), S29–S32.

Liew, M. F., Siow, W. T., MacLaren, G., & See, K. C. (2020). Preparing for COVID-19: early experience from an intensive care unit in Singapore. Critical Care / the Society of Critical Care Medicine, 24(1), 83.

Livingston, E., Desai, A., & Berkwits, M. (2020). Sourcing Personal Protective Equipment During the COVID-19 Pandemic. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association.

Mackenzie, C., Donohue, J., Wasylina, P., Cullum, W., Hu, P., & Lam, D. M. (2009). How will military/civilian coordination work for reception of mass casualties from overseas? Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 24(5), 380–388.

MacLaren, G., Fisher, D., & Brodie, D. (2020). Preparing for the Most Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association.

Marres, G., Bemelman, M., van der Eijk, J., & Leenen, L. (2009). Major Incident Hospital: Development of a Permanent Facility for Management of Incident Casualties. European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society, 35(3), 203–211.

Murthy, S., Gomersall, C. D., & Fowler, R. A. (2020). Care for Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association.

NHMRC. (2019). Australian Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of Infection in Healthcare (2019).

Oster, N. S., & Chaffee, M. W. (2004). Hospital preparedness analysis using the hospital emergency analysis tool (the HEAT). Annals of Emergency Medicine, 44(4, Supplement), S61.

Pang, J., Wang, M. X., Ang, I. Y. H., Tan, S. H. X., Lewis, R. F., Chen, J. I.-P., Gutierrez, R. A., Gwee, S. X. W., Chua, P. E. Y., Yang, Q., Ng, X. Y., Yap, R. K., Tan, H. Y., Teo, Y. Y., Tan, C. C., Cook, A. R., Yap, J. C.-H., & Hsu, L. Y. (2020). Potential Rapid Diagnostics, Vaccine and Therapeutics for 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV): A Systematic Review. Journal of Clinical Medicine Research, 9(3).

Paul, J. A., & MacDonald, L. (2016). Location and capacity allocations decisions to mitigate the impacts of unexpected disasters. European Journal of Operational Research, 251(1), 252–263.

Resuscitation Council, UK. (2020). Statement on COVID-19 in relation to CPR and resuscitation in healthcare settings. Accessed on March, 13.

Rodríguez-Espíndola, O., Albores, P., & Brewster, C. (2018). Dynamic formulation for humanitarian response operations incorporating multiple organisations. International Journal of Production Economics, 204, 83–98.

Salman, F. S., & Gül, S. (2014). Deployment of field hospitals in mass casualty incidents. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 74, 37–51.

Secombe, P., Brown, A., McAnulty, G., & Pilcher, D. (2019). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients requiring critical care: characteristics, resource use, and outcomes. Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine, 21(3), 200–211.

Shapira, S. C., & Falk, O. (2012). Terror Medicine: Source and Evolution. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 35(3), 255–260.

Shekerdemian, L. S., Mahmood, N. R., Wolfe, K. K., Riggs, B. J., Ross, C. E., McKiernan, C. A., Heidemann, S. M., Kleinman, L. C., Sen, A. I., Hall, M. W., Priestley, M. A., McGuire, J. K., Boukas, K., Sharron, M. P., Burns, J. P., & International COVID-19 PICU Collaborative. (2020). Characteristics and Outcomes of Children With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Infection Admitted to US and Canadian Pediatric Intensive Care Units. JAMA Pediatrics.

Shen, W., Jiang, L., Zhang, M., Ma, Y., Jiang, G., & He, X. (2015). Very serious and non-ignorable problem: Crisis in emergency medical response in catastrophic event. Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA, 27(6), 573–579.

Skinner, E. H., Thomas, P., Reeve, J. C., & Patman, S. (2016). Minimum standards of clinical practice for physiotherapists working in critical care settings in Australia and New Zealand: A modified Delphi technique. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 32(6), 468–482.

Sprung, C. L., Danis, M., Iapichino, G., Artigas, A., Kesecioglu, J., Moreno, R., Lippert, A., Curtis, J. R., Meale, P., Cohen, S. L., Levy, M. M., & Truog, R. D. (2013). Triage of intensive care patients: identifying agreement and controversy. Intensive Care Medicine, 39(11), 1916–1924.

Standards Australia. (2009). Selection, use and maintenance of respiratory protective equipment – AS/NZS 1715-2009.–1715-2009

Standards New Zealand. (2009). Selection, use and maintenance of respiratory protective equipment – AS/NZS 1715-2009.–1715-2009

Swann, O. V., Holden, K. A., Turtle, L., Pollock, L., Fairfield, C. J., Drake, T. M., Seth, S., Egan, C., Hardwick, H. E., Halpin, S., Girvan, M., Donohue, C., Pritchard, M., Patel, L. B., Ladhani, S., Sigfrid, L., Sinha, I. P., Olliaro, P. L., Nguyen-Van-Tam, J. S., … ISARIC4C Investigators. (2020). Clinical characteristics of children and young people admitted to hospital with covid-19 in United Kingdom: prospective multicentre observational cohort study. BMJ , 370, m3249.

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Taylor, G., Leversha, A., Archer, C., Boland, C., Dooley, M., Fowler, P., Gordon-Croal, S., Fitch, J., Marotti, S., McKenzie, A., McKenzie, D., Collard, N., Burridge, N., O’Leary, K., Randall, C., Roberts, A., & Seaton, S. (2013). Overview: Standards of Practice for Clinical Pharmacy Services. Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, 43(2), Supplement.

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van Doremalen, N., Bushmaker, T., Morris, D. H., Holbrook, M. G., Gamble, A., Williamson, B. N., Tamin, A., Harcourt, J. L., Thornburg, N.J., Gerber, S. I., Lloyd-Smith, J. O., de Wit, E., & Munster, V. J. (2020). Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1. The New England Journal of Medicine.

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